Dolichocephaly, also know as Scaphocephaly is a developmental ‘abnormality’ of the skull shape and size. Scaphocephaly itself means boat shaped head. Babies with dolichocephaly are born with a elongated head than a normal child. The anierior posterior diameter (length) of dolichocephaly head is more than transverse diameter (width). It has a incidence of 1 in every 4200 babies.
Babies with dolichocehaly are not abnormal. But dolichocephaly may be associated with other underlying congenital abnormalities.
Diagnosis of Dolichocephaly
Dolichocehaly is detected as an increased cephalic index of less than or equal to 75. Cephalic index is calculated using two fetal bio metric parameters which are the occipitofrontal diameter and the bipareital diameter. It is calculated as:
cephalic index (CI) = bipareital diameter (BPD)/occipitofrontal diameter (OFD) x 100
It can be diagnosed incidentally with USG, feotal skull X-ray or CT scan.
Cause of Dolichocephaly:
Dolicocephaly may be just a normal variation to a sign of underlying developmental, genetic disorder.
- Premature closure of Sagittal suture lines
- Dolichocephaly is more common in breeech presentation
- Associated with long standing Oligohydramnios
Association with other diseases, syndromes :-
- Marfan Syndrome
- Sotos Syndrome
- Crouzon Syndrome
- Sensenbrenner Syndrome
- Proteus Syndrome
- Bloom Syndrome
- Yunis-Varon Syndrome
- Deletion of 10q
Do dolichocehaly always need treatment?
Only symptomatic cases or cases with probable brain development issues require intervention. Rest actually do not need anything. The odd shape of the head can be compensated with hair styling easily in a grown up kid.