Self esteem test can be defined as a psychological test concept the measures or evaluates the emotional measure of a person’s worth as seen by the person himself or herself. It comprises of a person’s emotional state such as shame, despair, pride and triumph. This psychological entity may change according to the events that are happening in the person’s life such as academic achievement, happiness, satisfaction in relationships and the person’s criminal tendencies.
In the 60s, Morris Rosenberg, a sociologist defined a self esteem test for the measurement of what the person is feeling in regards to his or her own worth and therefore it was a measure of their self esteem. This scale was later known as the self esteem scale or the Rosenberg self esteem scale (RSES). The self esteem scale consists of 10-entities in reference with which the self esteem scale score is calculated.
The 10 items for the self esteem test score calculation contain statements about a person in general and the concerned person has to imply his or her level of agreement with those statements. Depending on the level of the agreement a score is assigned with that statement and the total of all the scores is calculated. The minimum score that can be given to an individual in RSES is of 0 and the maximum score that can be given to an individual is 30. If a person scores 0-15 then they are said to have a low self esteem may be going through a psychological issue that needs to be dealt with.
Another method of measuring self esteem test is the Coopersmith Inventory. This method is more explicit as it involves a series of 50 questions, where the user has to rate himself or herself on the basis of how similar they are to the other person. It consists questions that bring out aspects of social deviance and inner shame that a person may feel.
Rosenberg later on defined two types of self esteem entities. The global self esteem and the specific self esteem. The global self esteem relates to the individual’s attitude towards one’s own self.
Whether the individual has a positive or a negative outlook on himself or herself in total. While the specific self esteem relates more to the different facets of one’s life. What a person thinks about those specific aspects of his or her life. This specificity adds different dimensions to the theory of self esteem.
Later on, it was believed that specific self esteem plays a major role in defining the behaviour of an individual. Whereas global self esteem is more relevant to the overall psychological well being of the person. Therefore in defining the self esteem of an individual as a single entity, it is necessary to consider both global self esteem and specific self esteem in its measurement. Accordingly, the 10 question list of the Rosenberg self esteem scale is defined. Here six out of ten questions air statements are a measure of the global self esteem of the individual. Whereas the academic self esteem or the specific self esteem measure is based on a 3 item index where the
person has to rate himself or herself in comparison to his or her peers in terms of –
3. And the ability to use that intelligence.
In order to encompass more and more dimensions in the ten question set, the questions are designed in such a way that they may also include the measures of other psychological well beings. These include the following.
● Depressed – 6 items
● Anomie – 8 items
● General anxiety – 7 items
● Resentment – 7 items
● Anxiety and tension – 5 items
● Irritability – 7 items
● Life satisfaction – 1 item
● Guilt – 5 items
● Happiness – 6 items
● Negative affective states – 4 items
Therefore most of the questions or statements are integrated outcomes of the global and the specific aspects of self esteem along with various psychological well being measured. The procedure for evaluating the self esteem scale relates to a series of ten statements where the person has to answer with one of the four options, i.e., strongly agree, agree, disagree, and strongly disagree. The general ten statements are as follows-
1. On the whole, I am satisfied with myself
2. At times I think I am no good at all
3. I feel that I have a number of good qualities
4. I am able to do things as well as most other people
5. I feel I do not have much to be proud of
6. I certainly feel useless at times
7. I feel that I’m a person of worth, at least on an equal plane with others.
8. I wish I could have more respect for myself
9. All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a failure
10. I take a positive attitude towards myself.
The answers are scored with 1 point for strongly disagree, 2 points for disagree, 3 points for
agree and 4 points for strongly disagree. And the statements 2,5,6,8,9 are scored reversed. But the test mentioned above is not a psychological reference for evaluation.
By different studies that have been performed over the years, it can be inferred that global and specific self esteem have different correlates that decide their measure. Therefore global self esteem appears to be largely effective in nature and is more associated with the overall psychological well being of the individual. On the other hand, specific self esteem is a more judgmental and evaluative quantity. It has a more cognitive aspect to it and is more associated
with the behaviour of the individual and his or her behavioural results.
Therefore one can conclude that global self esteem and specific self esteem are interrelated. Although the specific forms of self esteem have more effect on the global self esteem than the other forms, but global self esteem has a very little effect on the specific self esteem and therefore not really changes the behavioral outcomes. The self esteem test has proved its importance in treating patients with psychosomatic disorders.
As different levels of pathology require different forms of treatment, therefore it is important to estimate the prognosis in such cases and that the evaluation of self esteem would be useful for this purpose. People with damaged self esteem are at risk of developing psychological and social problems which in turn act as a barrier in their recovery from low self esteem. Therefore it is quite necessary to evaluate their self esteem scale via self esteem test which can be an effective method for understanding their past and present situation and is useful in treating psychosomatic disorders.